The stadium refers to an outdoor sports building that can be used for track and field and football competitions, and it is mainly composed of a game field, a practice field and a checkpoint, an auditorium, auxiliary rooms and facilities. Since the stadium is an open-air competition venue, it covers an area several times to dozens of times larger than a normal gym. For example, the most used field for football and track and field competitions, the distance between the two goals is 105 ~ 110m, and the track and field surrounds the football field. Therefore, the stadium is an important content of sports lighting design, and complex. It is only required to meet the requirements of athletes for competition and audience viewing, but also to meet the requirements of color temperature, illuminance and uniformity of lighting for filming TV and television broadcasts. This requirement is much higher than the requirements of athletes and spectators. In addition, the way of arranging the lighting fixtures should closely cooperate with the overall planning of the stadium and the structure of the stands. In particular, the maintenance of lighting equipment is closely related to the design of the building and must be considered comprehensively.
The lighting design of the stadium is characterized by large space and long distance. Therefore, the site lighting generally chooses high-efficiency floodlights. There are four types of lamp layout: four-tower, multi-tower, light strip layout and mixed layout. The specific method used depends on the characteristics and structure of the sports building. In the arrangement of lighting fixtures, the lighting of the auditorium and emergency lighting of the playing field should also be considered to ensure safe evacuation.
In the case of AC power supply, athletes will have a stroboscopic effect when watching high-speed moving spheres, especially when the movement speed is very high; at the same time, television broadcasting will also be greatly affected. For this purpose, the floodlight should be powered by a three-phase power supply. When the three-phase power supply, the number of lights connected to each phase is equal, and the light emitted from the projection lights connected to different phases overlap in the sports field, which can eliminate the stroboscopic effect.
1. Way of arranging lights in track and field
Athletics competition venues generally have high jump, long jump, pole vault, throwing, football and other sports in the center, and the track is surrounded by the track. The standard distance is 400m, and stands are generally set on both sides or one side of the venue. There are generally three ways to install track and field lamps: pole installation, tower installation, and the use of stadium structure to install lamps. For pole installation and tower installation, the light pole or lighthouse is at least 1m away from the outer edge of the runway to prevent athletes from being injured by impact. The height of the light pole or lighthouse is about 45m. The proper installation height is very important to control the glare in the field and reduce the overflow light outside the field. The best result is to ensure that the glare index GR is less than 50.
2. The way of lighting the football field
FIFA stipulates that the football field length is 105m to 110m and the width is 68m to 75m. There must be no obstacles at least 5m outside the bottom line and sideline of the course to ensure the safety of the athletes. There are two basic layouts for the venue lighting: four corners (the lamps are installed on the tower near the diagonal extension of the stadium), the installation position of the four corners of the lighthouse, the lighthouse and the lighthouse are set at the common point where the side line crosses 5 degrees and the bottom line 15 degrees The height is calculated by the following formula: h = dtgφ, h = the height of the lighthouse; d = the distance between the pitch of the stadium and the lighthouse; the angle between the pitch of the pitch and the bottom and top of the lighthouse is required to be greater than 25 degrees; The installation of light fixtures is relatively low, and the light fixtures are located on both sides of the court. The lateral arrangement can be subdivided into two ways: multi-tower (pole) installation, with 2, 3 or 4 towers (poles) on the side of the stadium; light belt installation, the lamps are installed on the ceiling or the horse track, when the lighting is formed and the stadium Bands of light with parallel sides.